micro organism: (singular: bacterium) Single-celled organisms. These dwell practically in all places on Earth, from the underside of the ocean to inside different dwelling organisms (reminiscent of crops and animals). Micro organism are one of many three domains of life on Earth.
bleach: A dilute type of the liquid, sodium hypochlorite, that’s used across the house to lighten and brighten materials, to take away stains or to kill germs. Or it could actually imply to lighten one thing completely, reminiscent of: Being in fixed daylight bleached many of the wealthy coloring out of the window drapes.
cell: (in biology) The smallest structural and purposeful unit of an organism. Sometimes too small to see with the unaided eye, it consists of a watery fluid surrounded by a membrane or wall. Relying on their dimension, animals are made from anyplace from 1000’s to trillions of cells. Most organisms, reminiscent of yeasts, molds, micro organism and a few algae, are composed of just one cell.
chemical: A substance fashioned from two or extra atoms that unite (bond) in a hard and fast proportion and construction. For instance, water is a chemical made when two hydrogen atoms bond to 1 oxygen atom. Its chemical formulation is H2O. Chemical additionally might be an adjective to explain properties of supplies which can be the results of numerous reactions between totally different compounds.
chemistry: The sector of science that offers with the composition, construction and properties of gear and the way they work together. Scientists use this data to check unfamiliar substances, to breed giant portions of helpful substances or to design and create new and helpful substances. (about compounds) Chemistry is also used as a time period to seek advice from the recipe of a compound, the way in which it’s produced or a few of its properties. Individuals who work on this discipline are often called chemists. (in social science) A time period for the power of individuals to cooperate, get alongside and revel in one another’s firm.
colleague: Somebody who works with one other; a co-worker or group member.
compound: (usually used as a synonym for chemical) A compound is a substance fashioned when two or extra chemical parts unite (bond) in fastened proportions. For instance, water is a compound made from two hydrogen atoms bonded to 1 oxygen atom. Its chemical image is H2O.
degrade: To interrupt down into smaller, less complicated supplies — as when wooden rots or as a flag that’s left outdoor within the climate will fray, fade and crumble. (in chemistry) To interrupt down a compound into smaller parts.
DNA: (quick for deoxyribonucleic acid) A protracted, double-stranded and spiral-shaped molecule inside most dwelling cells that carries genetic directions. It’s constructed on a spine of phosphorus, oxygen, and carbon atoms. In all dwelling issues, from crops and animals to microbes, these directions inform cells which molecules to make.
E. coli: (quick for Escherichia coli) A standard bacterium that researchers usually harness to check genetics. Some naturally occurring strains of this microbe trigger illness, however many others don’t.
economic system: Time period for the mixed wealth and assets (folks, jobs, land, forests and minerals, for example) of a nation or area. It’s usually measured by way of jobs and earnings or by way of the manufacturing and use of products (reminiscent of merchandise) and companies (for example, nursing or web entry).
engineer: An individual who makes use of science to unravel issues. As a verb, to engineer means to design a tool, materials or course of that may remedy some drawback or unmet want. (v.) To carry out these duties, or the title for an individual who performs such duties.
atmosphere: The sum of all the issues that exist round some organism or the method and the situation these issues create. Setting might seek advice from the climate and ecosystem wherein some animal lives, or, maybe, the temperature and humidity (and even the placement of issues within the neighborhood of an merchandise of curiosity).
environmental engineer: An individual who makes use of science to check and remedy issues in ecosystems — from forests to the human physique.
germ: Anyone-celled microorganism, reminiscent of a bacterium or fungal species, or a virus particle. Some germs trigger illness. Others can promote the well being of extra complicated organisms, together with birds and mammals. The well being results of most germs, nonetheless, stay unknown.
an infection: (adj. infectious) A illness that may unfold from one organism to a different. It’s often attributable to some kind of microbe.
microbe: Brief for microorganism. A dwelling factor that’s too small to see with the unaided eye, together with micro organism, some fungi and lots of different organisms reminiscent of amoebas. Most include a single cell.
microscope: An instrument used to view objects, like micro organism, or the one cells of crops or animals, which can be too small to be seen to the unaided eye.
molecule: An electrically impartial group of atoms that represents the smallest attainable quantity of a chemical compound. Molecules might be made from single forms of atoms or of various varieties. For instance, the oxygen within the air is made from two oxygen atoms (O2), however water is made from two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom (H2O).
phenol: A poisonous acid that’s often created from coal tar. It has the chemical formulation C6H5OH and is used within the manufacturing of many business chemical compounds. Dilute phenol is called carbolic acid and can be utilized as a disinfectant.
stress: Drive utilized uniformly over a floor, measured as drive per unit of space.
Proceedings of the Nationwide Academy of Sciences: A prestigious journal publishing authentic scientific analysis, begun in 1914. The journal’s content material spans the organic, bodily and social sciences. Every of the greater than 3,000 papers it publishes every year, now, usually are not solely peer reviewed but additionally authorized by a member of the U.S. Nationwide Academy of Sciences.
protein: A compound created from a number of lengthy chains of amino acids. Proteins are a vital a part of all dwelling organisms. They type the premise of dwelling cells, muscle and tissues; in addition they do the work within cells. Among the many better-known, stand-alone proteins are the hemoglobin (in blood) and the antibodies (additionally in blood) that try and battle infections. Medicines ceaselessly work by latching onto proteins.
sustainable: An adjective to explain the usage of assets in a such a approach that they may proceed to be obtainable lengthy into the longer term.
poisonous: Toxic or in a position to hurt or kill cells, tissues or complete organisms. The measure of danger posed by such a poison is its toxicity.
toxicologist: A scientist who investigates the potential hurt posed by bodily brokers within the atmosphere. These might embrace supplies to which we could also be deliberately uncovered, reminiscent of chemical compounds, cigarette smoke and meals, or supplies to which we’re uncovered with out selection, reminiscent of air and water pollution. Toxicologists might research the dangers such exposures trigger, how they produce hurt or how they transfer all through the atmosphere.
virus: Tiny infectious particles consisting of genetic materials (RNA or DNA) surrounded by protein. Viruses can reproduce solely by injecting their genetic materials into the cells of dwelling creatures. Though scientists ceaselessly seek advice from viruses as reside or useless, in reality many scientists argue that no virus is actually alive. It doesn’t eat like animals do, or make its personal meals the way in which crops do. It should hijack the mobile equipment of a dwelling cell with a purpose to survive.
waste: Any supplies which can be left over from organic or different programs that haven’t any worth, to allow them to be disposed of as trash or recycled for some new use.