agent: An individual or factor (it may be a chemical or perhaps a type of vitality) that performs some position in getting one thing achieved.
antibodies: Any of numerous proteins that the physique produces from B cells and releases into the blood provide as a part of its immune response. The manufacturing of antibodies is triggered when the physique encounters an antigen, some overseas materials. Antibodies then lock onto antigens as a primary step in disabling the germs or different overseas substances that had been the supply of these antigens.
B cell: A kind of small white blood cell (often known as a B lymphocyte), which performs an vital position within the immune system. Made within the bone marrow, these cells mature into plasma cells, and function the supply of antibodies.
micro organism: (singular: bacterium) Single-celled organisms. These dwell almost in all places on Earth, from the underside of the ocean to inside different dwelling organisms (reminiscent of vegetation and animals). Micro organism are one of many three domains of life on Earth.
cell: (in biology) The smallest structural and practical unit of an organism. Sometimes too small to see with the unaided eye, it consists of a watery fluid surrounded by a membrane or wall. Relying on their measurement, animals are manufactured from wherever from hundreds to trillions of cells. Most organisms, reminiscent of yeasts, molds, micro organism and a few algae, are composed of just one cell.
cytokine: A small protein secreted by sure cells of the immune system which the physique makes use of to have some explicit controlling impact on different cells. Examples embrace interferons, interleukins and development elements.
dendritic cell: A kind of immune system cell that initiates the first response to a overseas substance.
digest: (noun: digestion) To interrupt down meals into easy compounds that the physique can take up and use for development. Some sewage-treatment vegetation harness microbes to digest — or degrade — wastes in order that the breakdown merchandise could be recycled to be used elsewhere within the atmosphere.
drive: Some exterior affect that may change the movement of a physique, maintain our bodies shut to at least one one other, or produce movement or stress in a stationary physique.
germ: Anybody-celled microorganism, reminiscent of a bacterium or fungal species, or a virus particle. Some germs trigger illness. Others can promote the well being of extra complicated organisms, together with birds and mammals. The well being results of most germs, nonetheless, stay unknown.
honey: A viscous (gooey) materials that honeybees retailer of their honeycombs. The bees make it from nectar.
immune: (adj.) Having to do with immunity. (v.) Capable of keep at bay a selected an infection. Alternatively, this time period can be utilized to imply an organism exhibits no impacts from publicity to a selected poison or course of. Extra typically, the time period might sign that one thing can’t be damage by a selected drug, illness or chemical.
immune system: The gathering of cells and their responses that assist the physique combat off infections and take care of overseas substances that will provoke allergy symptoms.
innate: An adjective for some habits, angle or response that’s pure, or inborn, and doesn’t should be realized.
macrophage: A kind of white blood cell dispatched by the immune system. Like janitors of the physique, they gobble up germs, wastes and particles for disposal. These cells additionally stimulate different immune cells by exposing them to small bits of the invaders.
microbe: Quick for microorganism. A dwelling factor that’s too small to see with the unaided eye, together with micro organism, some fungi and plenty of different organisms reminiscent of amoebas. Most include a single cell.
molecule: An electrically impartial group of atoms that represents the smallest potential quantity of a chemical compound. Molecules could be manufactured from single kinds of atoms or of various varieties.
neutrophil: A kind of white blood cell launched by the immune system. It gobbles up wastes and launch chemical substances that may digest cells, together with germs.
pathogen: An organism that causes illness.
main: An adjective that means main, first or most vital.
protein: A compound made out of a number of lengthy chains of amino acids. Proteins are a necessary a part of all dwelling organisms. They type the idea of dwelling cells, muscle and tissues; additionally they do the work within cells. Among the many better-known, stand-alone proteins are the hemoglobin (in blood) and the antibodies (additionally in blood) that try to combat infections. Medicines steadily work by latching onto proteins.
recruit: (verb) To enroll a brand new member into some group. It could possibly be into the navy. Or it could possibly be into taking part in a analysis group to check some drug, habits or environmental situation.
replicate: (in biology) To repeat one thing. When viruses make new copies of themselves — primarily reproducing — this course of is known as replication.
danger: The possibility or mathematical chance that some dangerous factor may occur.
survey: To view, study, measure or consider one thing, usually land or broad points of a panorama.
SWAT: Acronym for particular weapons and ways. It’s a time period for the kind of closely armored, fight troops who can help and even take over for patrol officers and detectives in difficult circumstances.
system: A community of elements that collectively work to realize some operate. As an example, the blood, vessels and coronary heart are main parts of the human physique’s circulatory system. Equally, trains, platforms, tracks, roadway alerts and overpasses are among the many potential parts of a nation’s railway system. System may even be utilized to the processes or concepts which might be a part of some methodology or ordered set of procedures for getting a activity achieved.
T cells: A household of white blood cells, often known as lymphocytes, which might be main actors within the immune system. They combat illness and can assist the physique take care of dangerous substances.
tag: (in immunology) A chemical change that permits the immune system to establish cells or different materials that it ought to assault and disable or take away.
vaccine: (v. vaccinate) A organic combination that resembles a disease-causing agent. It’s given to assist the physique create immunity to a selected illness. The injections used to manage most vaccines are often known as vaccinations.
virus: Tiny infectious particles consisting of genetic materials (RNA or DNA) surrounded by protein. Viruses can reproduce solely by injecting their genetic materials into the cells of dwelling creatures. Though scientists steadily discuss with viruses as stay or useless, in truth many scientists argue that no virus is actually alive. It doesn’t eat like animals do, or make its personal meals the best way vegetation do. It should hijack the mobile equipment of a dwelling cell with a purpose to survive.